Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the first person said. Reported Speech. You have a doctor’s appointment on Tuesday. Study the following example. Here’s our full length tutorial on Reported Speech Rules in English: Reported speech simply refers to statements that recount what someone else has already said or asked. Reported Speech Exercise 6 - statements, questions, commands. Indirect speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words. e.g. thatcan usually be omitted after sayand tell + object. Future Perfect Tense ( e.g. Example: 1)Direct speech: Maria said, “I live in Canada.” Indirect speech: Maria said (or told me) that she lived in Canada.. 2)Direct speech: “Sara has made soup,” said Indirect speech: Jill said that Sara had made soup.. 3)Direct speech: “Gina, watch out for the bird!” exclaimed Indirect speech: Peter warned Gina to watch out for the bird. For example, let’s say that the statement above was reported to you a few days prior, but you reported it to someone else on Monday (the day before the appointment). In most cases, a statement of reported speech uses verbs like “say” or “tell,” though you can also use verbs like “state,” “proclaim,” or “announce,” depending on the context of the original statement. The following rules should be followed while converting an indirect speech to direct speech: Use the reporting verb such as (say, said to) in its correct tense. 2 – If Reporting Speech is in Past and Reported is not Changes in Tenses According to Rule 2 You may have noticed that the pronoun you in the direct speech changed to I in the indirect speech. A change of time may mean a change of tense. Present perfect tense will … We also may need to change words like 'my' and 'your'. Note that we cannot normally mix these two structures. Grammar explanation. Read the explanation to learn more. Finally, what are some examples of reported speech? Question forms and reported speech Word order Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subject comes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use 'do' or 'did': Indirect Speech (Reported Speech) Indirect/reported speech, on the other hand, does not have to be within quotes or reported word-to-word. When words and thoughts are reported, there is usually a change of tenses, pronouns and other words. As with reported statements, we may need to change pronouns and tense (backshift) as well as time and place in reported questions. Different rules apply based on the verb tense and the content of the statement. Past continuous tense will become past perfect continuous tense. © 2020 Magoosh English Speaking. Mowa zależna – reported speech – w języku angielskim służy do relacjonowania czyichś wypowiedzi bez ich cytowania. We don't need to change the tense, though probably we do need to change the 'person' from 'I' to 'she', for example. Rules: (i) If the Reported Speech states some General, Universal or Habitual Truth, Proverb, Historical event in the past, Improbable future condition, the Present Tense used there is not changed into the corresponding past form. How you form reported speech will largely depend on what was said and when it was said. In most cases, a statement of reported speech uses verbs like “say” or “tell,” though you can also use verbs like “state,” “proclaim,” or “announce,” depending on the context of the original statement. Talking about what someone else has already said, also known as reported speech, involves a few special grammar rules in English. Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example "I'm going to the cinema tonight". Direct and Indirect Speech Rules. he asked. -> She told me to brush my teeth. Rules for converting Indirect Speech into Direct Speech The following rules should be followed while converting an indirect speech to direct speech: 1. Instead, you must turn it into a statement. Here are a few examples: Reporting statements is relatively straightforward, as it usually just requires the second clause to change tense (sometimes not even that). Put a comma before the statement and the first letter of … The last sentence is what is known as “reported speech,” because you reported something that someone else said. Direct and Indirect Speech Punctuation Rules. Simple past tense will become past perfect tense. When changing from direct to indirect speech, you need to change the grammar in certain ways. The changes of Direct and Indirect speech depend on some factors like modals, reporting verb, place, time, tense, pronoun etc. Simple present tense in the direct speech will become simple past tense in the indirect speech. We just put 'she says' and then the sentence: Direct speech: I like ice cream. When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). To do this, we can use direct speech or indirect speech. Future Progressive Tense ( e.g. Generally, when the reporting verb is in the simple past tense, we change the reported verb as well. Don’t touch that! Grammar B1-B2: Reported speech 1: 1. Present continuous tense will become past continuous tense. A change of place and time may mean changing words like here, this, now, today etc. indirect speech: He asked me if I liked working in sales. However, often a writer simply wants to carry the gist, or meaning, of the actual words a person uses.This is when indirect speech comes into play. Words of the speaker (reported speech) are not enclosed in Inverted Commas or Quotation Marks in Indirect Speech. The last sentence is what is known as “reported speech,” because you reported something that someone else said. So, here are a few free online resources to help you get the hang of it: Lastly, if you’d like to learn more about reported speech or find a highly qualified English tutor online to help guide you, visit Magoosh Speaking today! Reporting clause before the direct speech. For example: Direct speech: I’ve lost my umbrella. These changes are mostly natural and logical. A reported question is when we tell someone what another person asked. 2. All Rights Reserved. Reported speech: She says (that) she likes ice cream. To do this, we can use direct speech or indirect speech. In any case, this is just one example of reported speech in the simple past tense. Here’s an example question: If you want to report this question later, you’ll need to change it, like so: Thankfully, once you learn the guidelines for reporting statements, you can apply many of the same rules to reporting questions. There is no backshift of tenses with commands/requests in Reported Speech.. You only have to change the person and shift expressions of time/place descibed on our page Reported Speech – Summary. The meaning stays the same with or without it. What are the grammar rules that dictate these indirect speech patterns? All of the tense changes are the same: To keep things simple, requests are treated the same as questions when reported to someone else. Rule No. Reported speech: direct speech - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary Reported speech: He said (that) he had lost his umbrella. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, though direct speech is sometimes here to give a more dramatic effect. 1 – If Reporting Speech is in Present Tense: Direct Indirect Speech Exercise 1 Rule No. Zdanie w mowie zależnej: Zdanie w mowie niezależnej: Considering this Edumantra is providing reported speech rules and direct and indirect speech examples in a very easy and convenient … Dear students and teachers: Please make sure you subscribe to the free grammar updates, English Practice – Learn and Practice English Online, He said, ‘I got my report yesterday.’ (Direct speech), He said that he got his report the previous day. This kind of structure is called ‘direct speech’. So after past reporting verbs, the verbs of the original speech are usually made more past. Prefer to watch this lesson on video? For example, let’s say that you and your two friends went to the movies. indirect speech: Daniel said that he worked in a bank. A change of speaker may mean a change of pronoun. will) into “would”. As you’re leaving the movie theater, the following conversation takes place: You: He said that the movie was really scary. There are no exact rules regarding the change of pronouns. Relative Pronouns: How to use them in English, English Proficiency Levels: A Guide to Determining Your Level, English as a Second Language – Benefits, Strategies, and More, Magoosh English Class: Finneas, Billie Eilish’s Grammy Award-Winning Brother, Starting a Presentation in English: Methods and Examples, Note: For “Yes/No” questions, we change “do” or “does” to “if.”. Past Perfect Tense (The tense remains unchanged) Past Perfect Progressive Tense (The tense remains unchanged) Future Simple Tense ( e.g. For example, if the original statement is comprised of general information that is unchanging, you don’t need to report it in the past tense. So, how should you report speech in English? Grammar Rules with 10 Tips on using Direct & Indirect Speech Looking for Questions instead of tips? You can check the complete information of changes in Direct and Indirect speech. (Indirect speech). Tense Changes in Reported Speech Reported Speech Exercise 2 - statements - present tense. will be) into “would be”. The correct punctuation. We can report people’s speech in two main ways. For example, here may become there in indirect speech; this may become that; now may become then. She told me that I have a doctor’s appointment tomorrow. Reported Speech Exercise 3 - statements - present tense. For example: As you can see, the rules governing how to report speech can vary based on the tense of the original statement. If a time is mentioned within the statement, you will also have to consider how that time relates to the current moment. Here are a few examples: As you can see, both the reporting verb and the reported verb remain in the simple present tense. Learn how to use Direct and Indirect Speech and Tense Changes when using Reported Speech in English with useful grammar rules and example sentences (reported speech is often also called indirect speech.) Not only is this punctuated differently (none of the rules specific to direct speech apply – reported speech is punctuated as normal prose), but sometimes the tense of verb forms can change. We highly encourage students to help each other out and respond to other students' comments if you can! Innym sposobem przytaczania czyichś słów jest mowa niezależna (direct speech), kiedy to przytaczamy czyjeś słowa w cudzysłowie. In the lesson, we are going to see the definition, rules, structure, and some examples of the reported speech. We will answer all of these questions and more, but first, let’s take a look at exactly what is meant by “reported speech.”. Brush your teeth. Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct … In indirect speech, the structure of the reported clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command. Grammar explanation. direct speech: 'Do you like working in sales?' We can, for example, give the exact words spoken by them. The reporting clause of direct speech is the short clause that indicates who is talking. It can be asked in gap-filling as giving the right verb forms.So learning direct and indirect speech rules is very necessary. 2. So after past reporting verbs, the verbs of the original speech are usually made more past. will have) into “would have”. Vocabulary to report direct speech. (2) The Reported Speech The speech which is outside the inverted commas is called the reporting speech and its verb, the reporting verb while the speech within the inverted commas is the reported speech — the speech that includes the actual words of the speaker. It is the clause that is outside of the inverted commas. Direct Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in his own actual words without any change. She told him that she was happy. There is no comma after sayin indirect speech. Following punctuation rules in reported speech are applied Inverted comma are excluded; The question mark is converted into a full stop; The exclamation mark is silenced; Comma, in some cases, is used; Study the examples below Reported Speech Exercise 5 - statements - mixed tenses. Basic Rules For Indirect Speech Rule No. Unfortunately, you can’t always repeat back what you hear verbatim (using exactly the same words)! Thanks! This kind of reporting is called ‘indirect speech’ or ‘reported speech’. Magoosh blog comment policy: To create the best experience for our readers, we will only approve comments that are relevant to the article, general enough to be helpful to other students, concise, and well-written! EnglishPractice.com © 2020 - All rights Reserved. 😄 Due to the high volume of comments across all of our blogs, we cannot promise that all comments will receive responses from our instructors. I saw you at the movies last night. Generally, you can’t go wrong if you follow these guidelines (from the original statement to reported speech): That said, there are some exceptions in the present tense. Present perfect tense will become past perfect tense. The structure of the independent clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command. -> He told me not to touch that. Use the reporting verb such as (say, said to) in its correct tense. It all depends upon the context. 1. Fortunately, there are a number of ways to practice reported speech in daily conversation. The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. (Indirect speech). First, let’s look at how reported speech statements work in the simple present tense: If you report a statement using the simple present tense (say, tell, etc), then you can also leave the original statement in the present tense. The rules for writing direct speech. Simple present tense in the direct speech will become simple past tense in the indirect speech. Reported speech is when we tell someone what another person said. When did the speech happen? 2. RULES OF REPORTED SPEECH; Change the Tense, Change the Personal Pronoun, Change the Words Expressing Nearness. It is also important to note that, regardless of the tense, the word “that” is completely optional in reported speech. You could say either of the following: She told me that I have a doctor’s appointment on Tuesday, or. Reported speech (Indirect Speech) is how we represent the speech of other people or what we ourselves say.. Reported Speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words. After we report a question, it is no longer a question (and in writing there is no question mark). Form. Indirect speech: reporting statements affirmative commands → to + … First of all, when you report a question, you cannot just repeat the original question. It is therefore not the words being spoken. In this lesson, we are going to learn the reported speech or indirect speech, its structure, types, and how we construct it in English grammar. However, reporting questions is more complex. For example: Since reported speech is reported after the fact, the reporting verb is usually in the simple past tense. Present continuous tense will become past continuous tense. In fact, unless one is relaying the exact words spoken, one should never use quotation marks. - You can directly jump to English Grammar Test Questions on Direct and Indirect Speech What is Direct & Indirect Speech? This means that you will usually need to change the tense of the second clause. 1. -> He said he saw me at the movies. Tense Changes in Reported Speech For example: However, if someone demands something, we generally report the speech using “told” instead of “asked” or “said.” Here are some commands in reported speech: Finally, when reporting speech, you must always consider the time in which the original statement was made. Reported Speech Exercise 7 - statements, questions, commands If the Reporting Verb is in the Present or Future Tense, the tense of the verb in the Reported Speech is not changed at all. Reported Commands. If you are a Premium Magoosh student and would like more personalized service from our instructors, you can use the Help tab on the Magoosh dashboard. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. Indirect speech examples: She told us that she wouldn’t be coming home that night. We can also make the speaker’s words part of our own sentence, using conjunctions and changing pronouns and other words where necessary. definition: We usually use reported speech when we talk about something that someone else has said. Reported Speech Exercise 4 - statements - mixed tenses. Put a comma before the statement and the first letter of the statement should be in capital letter. Direct and Indirect speech is directly not asked in class 9 and 10 in CBSE Board but reported speech is not out of syllabus. Reported Speech Reported Statements When do we use reported speech? Rule No. Read the explanation to learn more. Rules for reporting speech To get this kind of sentence right, there are four things you should keep in mind: The first rule is to choose a reporting verb and tense. But we also need to change the word order . Below, we are sharing the rules to make changes from Direct to Indirect speech. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules . She said, ‘Where are you going?’ (Direct speech), She asked me where I was going. Grammar B1-B2: Reported speech 2: 1. Here are a few more time conversions to help you with reported speech: Now that you have a better understanding of reported speech in English, it’s time to practice! Here's how it works: We use a reporting verb like 'say' or 'tell'. direct speech: 'I work in a bank,' said Daniel. If this verb is in the present tense, it's easy.