CAS  Neurotoxicology 30(6):1223–1232, Horváth M, Frantík E, Krekule P (1981) Diazepam impairs alertness and potentiates the similar effect of toluene. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold ofbehavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV. However, it is well documented study and it was the lowest reported acute effect concentration identified in the EU RAR for toluene (2003) and so is considered suitable for use as a key study. The acute systemic effects of inhaled toluene vapour result in central nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, nausea, unsteady gait and coordination disorders. Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:521–529. First, toluene induced its own metabolism, as shown by the increase in PROD activity in livers of rats exposed for longer than 6 h J Physiol 509(Pt 2):607–618. You may experience some hearing and color vision loss after long-term daily exposure to toluene in the workplace. The lethal dose for man cannot be stated with certainty. Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, causes a variety of behavioral disturbances in both humans and animals. Our findings revealed that toluene abolished the plasticity induced by anodal tDCS, attenuated intracortical facilitation, and increased inhibition in the short-latency afferent inhibition measure, while cortico-spinal excitability and intracortical inhibition were not affected. This research was funded by Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany. %%EOF Am J Ind Med 16:67–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.01.006, Ziemann U (2004) TMS and drugs. Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid which becomes a vapor when exposed to air at room temperature. PubMed Central  Thus we examined the memory function‐related gene expressions in the mice hippocampus 24 h after toluene administration. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:2299–2308, Kobald SO, Wascher E, Blaszkewicz M et al (2015) Neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects after acute exposure to a single peak of 200 ppm toluene in healthy volunteers. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2010.02.002, Chen R (2000) Studies of human motor physiology with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Psychophysiological functions. The number of headaches and eye irritation also increased in a dose response manner. Acute effects of toluene on circadian rhythms of sleep-wakefulness and brain monoamine metabolism in rats. Seventeen subjects were assessed with different transcranial magnetic stimulation measurements: motor thresholds, short-latency … For the same scenarios the MOS for reproductive toxicity In humans a number of subjective sensations such as headache, dizziness, feeling of intoxication, irritation and sleepiness and decreases in acute neurobehavioural performance are seen following acute exposure = 75 ppm. Google Scholar, Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ (2002) Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Ann Neurol 40:367–378. injection of toluene on circadian rhythms of sleep-wakefulness were investigated in rats which were chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes for polygraphic recordings. 6 Altmetric. In high doses, toluene has effects similar to other volatile substances such as psychomotor damage, excitation in locomotor activities and later inhibition, loss of the standing up reflex, and sedation [ 7 – 9 J Clin Neurophysiol 19:307–321. J Physiol 545:153–167. J Physiol 527:633–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2008.06.004, Nitsche MA, Jakoubkova M, Thirugnanasambandam N et al (2010) Contribution of the premotor cortex to consolidation of motor sequence learning in humans during sleep. Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid which becomes a vapor when exposed to air at room temperature. Yavari, F., van Thriel, C., Nitsche, M.A. Google Scholar, Gauthereau MY, Salinas-Stefanon EM, Cruz SL (2005) A mutation in the local anaesthetic binding site abolishes toluene effects in sodium channels. Health Effects Absorption/Metabolism Toluene is absorbed almost completely from the gastrointestinal tract following ingestion. Neuroscience 17:37–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2015.03.005, Kujirai T, Caramia MD, Rothwell JC et al (1993) Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex. Min-Fang Kuo. Brain Stimul 1:206–223. Furthermore, we evaluated long-term potentiation-like neuroplasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex, and the participants conducted a motor sequence learning task, the serial reaction time task. Science 290:533–536. Methods: In a parallel design, subgroups of 12 healthy men each were exposed to a mixture containing 25 ppm acetone and 250 ppm toluene or to air (control) in an exposure chamber for 4.5 hours. The effects of toluene on this task confirm most aspects of our earlier observations that toluene disrupts both visual (Oshiro et al., 2007) and auditory signal detection in rats (Bushnell et al., 1994); they also extend observations of similar effects with TCE (Bushnell, 1997; Bushnell and Oshiro, 2000; Oshiro et al., 2001). Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Google Scholar, Klass M et al (2012) Effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on supraspinal fatigue in well-trained men. Exp Brain Res 135:455–461. This implies that the acute effects of toluene may be overcome, at least partially, for situations where consequences for poor performance exist. Two factors complicate extrapolation across these time intervals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 286:334–340, Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY et al (2003) Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Ergonomics 26:1081–1087. Metabolism in humans ... Often toluene exposure occurs in conjunction with benzene and since they are to some degree metabolised by the same enzymes, the relative concentrations will determine their rate of elimination. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210000543, Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Pilato F et al (2005a) Neurophysiological predictors of long term response to AChE inhibitors in AD patients. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 77:1–9. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. Br J Pharmacol 137:375–383. Scand J Work Environ Health 16:17–25, Kang EK, Paik NJ (2011) Effect of a tDCS electrode montage on implicit motor sequence learning in healthy subjects. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.10.069, Girard O, Bishop DJ, Racinais S (2013) Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints. Neurotoxicol Teratol 32:313–328. 58 Citations. Arito H, Tsuruta H, Nakagaki K. Toxicology, (3-4):291-301 MED: 6083632 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.t01-1-00633.x, Nitsche MA, Paulus W (2001) Sustained excitability elevations induced by transcranial DC motor cortex stimulation in humans. Methods: In a parallel design, subgroups of 12 healthy men each were exposed to a mixture containing 25 ppm acetone and 250 ppm toluene or to air (control) in an exposure chamber for 4.5 hours. Chronic toluene exposures at less than 200 ppm have been associated with headache, fatigue, and nausea. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.51.5.1320, Ziemann U, Tergau F, Wassermann EM et al (1998b) Demonstration of facilitatory I wave interaction in the human motor cortex by paired transcranial magnetic stimulation. Disorders of the muscles, cardiovascular effects, renal tubular damage, and su… https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2005.092155, Di Lazzaro V, Pilato F, Dileone M et al (2007) Segregating two inhibitory circuits in human motor cortex at the level of GABAA receptor subtypes: a TMS study. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00007945, Di Lazzaro V, Restuccia D, Oliviero A et al (1998) Magnetic transcranial stimulation at intensities below active motor threshold activates intracortical inhibitory circuits. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. The greatest effect was found for an increasing number of observations of sleep. Echeverria, Diana. The neurotoxic effects of long-term use (in particular repeated withdrawals) of toluene may cause postural tremors by downregulating GABA receptors within the cerebellar cortex. 79 0 obj <>stream J Appl Physiol 106:556–565, Smith AE, Goldsworthy MR, Garside T, Wood FM, Ridding MC (2014) The influence of a single bout of aerobic exercise on short-interval intracortical excitability. The fact that both auditory and visual signal detection are disrupted by … Concentrations corresponded to the German TLV (TRGS 403). Combinations of toluene and some common medicines like aspirin and acetaminophen may increase the effects of toluene on your hearing. Br J Ind Med 47:819–823, PubMed  Adverse performance at 150 ppm toluene was found at 6.0% for digit span, 12.1% for pattern recognition (latency), 5.0% for pattern memory (number correct), 6.5% for one hole, and 3.0% for critical tracking. Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. Toluene vapor has a sharp or sweet odor, which is a sign of exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 77:1502–1521. Archives of Toxicology Although abnormal neurological signs were observed after toluene exposure, these disappeared within 24 h and no toluene-related toxicological effects were observed in the liver, lungs, or kidneys. Echeverria, Diana. Effect of acute exposure to toluene on cortical excitability, neuroplasticity, and motor learning in healthy humans. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.08.040, Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT et al (2007) Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Purpose: Recent research on the acute effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) suggests that extrapolation from short (~ 1 h) to long durations (up to 4 h) is improved by using estimates of brain toluene concentration ( Br[ToI)] instead of cumulative inhaled dose (C x t) as a metric of dose. behavioural effects were attributable to toluene, al-thoughCNSsymptomswerereported. Exp Brain Res 119:265–268. Toxicology 265:34–40. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74:285–288. In one case, a person who had ingested toluene died following “a severe depression of the [central nervous system],” and showed signs of tubular kidney necrosis and swollen liver. 1987. PubMed Central  Pharmacol Toxicol 85:37–43. 0 Metrics … It is also absorbed via inhalation, and to a lesser degree, through the skin. Toxicol Sci 98:159–166. Inappropriate behavior, mood fluctuations, and nystagmus are also common. Acute Effects: Acute exposure to high levels of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate in humans, via inhalation, results in severe irritation of the skin, eyes, and nose, and causes nausea and vomiting. J Physiol 590:2767–2782, Hanajima R, Ugawa Y, Terao Y et al (1998) Paired-pulse magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex: differences among I waves. The acute behavioural effects of inhaling toluene after a single exposure are reversible,1 but although revers ible, they may also be an early sign of central nervous system (CNS) impairment leading to irreversible losses %PDF-1.6 %���� A) USES: Toluene (toluol, methyl benzene) is an aromatic petroleum hydrocarbon that has many commercial and industrial applications. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00611.2010, Nitsche MA, Müller-Dahlhaus F, Paulus W, Ziemann U (2012) The pharmacology of neuroplasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation: building models for the clinical use of CNS active drugs. volume 92, pages3149–3162(2018)Cite this article. J Physiol 557:689–700. ��K��� v.x���������"\�D�qBP?��z -��`;��Y��p:�l�T�c�i�`|�-!z@5�d�hS �����?�f`����c`�Ve�0 *�(� Neurology 57:1899–1901. In one case, a person who had ingested toluene died following “a severe depression of the [central nervous system],” and showed signs of tubular kidney necrosis and swollen liver. Mentioning: 6 - Acute effects of a single i.p. h�bbd``b`z$�A�^ ��Ī���� �$�ĺb9�X ��]"� � @�!H�mPS\cd��e`�&���� �? No other significant effect of toluene was observed (HR: Heart rate, BR: Breathing rate) (PDF 1095 KB), https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2277-x. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2277-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2277-x, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in There were no other significant effects of exposure to toluene. Acute and Case Studies .....12 4.1.2.2. behavioural effects were attributable to toluene, al-thoughCNSsymptomswerereported. Thus, the acute behavioral effects of toluene (and of other VOCs with a similar mode of action) can be predicted for complex exposure scenarios by simulations that estimate the concentration of the VOC in the brain from the exposure scenario. Conclusions: Three hour exposure to 50 ppm toluene did not result in abnormal episodic LH or FSH secretion profiles, however, subtle effects on LH secretion in men and women in the luteal phase were found. h��Zmo��+��F�=� �(�]�i`�I��}�HG�,ҹ��}�g�ܻ[ɍ�iZ#�q�2>�̐��5��Ť`$F���ٙ�PY�Iو�-Fj��j�H6��|5YPV1��b,&{S�8�JgM��ڀ��Ԍ�r6��+(k6_|�8z�h�rs�O�����������.N.O�.���ۣG�'��ݛ�O/./�x��}d��룟�O���m�O����O�����7�W���/�Y?3۫��w�o_����x��n'k#������b��R��,�\��9{��+vC����Ѧ5�5H�i��|���$�����_�O��!�d�7Ov ������%�!zqq��^��o��mU��f�n��뇓�����=^_\������Y�ڮ��N�]�=��8�n�}�Rƾ��������a}�a�'�������k�����Kt����� Toluene (1 g/kg, lh) did not alter total brain microsomal phospholipid (PL) or cholesterol (CL) content. toluene side effects. PubMed Central  Work Environ Health 9:131–139, CAS  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.4700160108, Ortu E, Deriu F, Suppa A et al (2008) Intracortical modulation of cortical-bulbar responses for the masseter muscle. Environl Toxicol Pharmacol 19:607–614, Article  Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold of behavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV. S u m m a r y o f s u b c h r o n i c a n d c h r o n i c t o l u e n e i n h a l a t i o n s t u d i e s i n a n i m a l s ....80 Table B1-1. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2004.051334, Di Lazzaro V, Pilato F, Dileone M et al (2005b) Dissociated effects of diazepam and lorazepam on short-latency afferent inhibition. Drug Alcohol Depend 115:101–106. The acute phase effects of toluene on the brain have been investigated in this study using rabbit brain via histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Eur J Med Res 10:381–388, Nakamura H, Kitagawa H, Kawaguchi Y, Tsuji H (1997) Intracortical facilitation and inhibition after transcranial magnetic stimulation in conscious humans. Cogn Psychol 19:1–32. Clin Neurophysiol 111:794–799. Scand J Work Environ Health 11:271–280. Top answers from doctors based on your search: Disclaimer. Article  May harm the nervous system. A significant interaction was observed between toluene and block for HR, which could be caused by increased arousal of the toluene-naïve participants in the first block. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.059808, Deschamps D, Géraud C, Dally S (2001) Cognitive functions in workers exposed to toluene: evaluation at least 48 hours after removal from exposure. Central nervous effects of low-dose exposure to neurotoxic substances in the work environment. Acute toluene toxicity results in lightheadedness and euphoria. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm080, Beckstead MJ, Weiner JL, Eger EI et al (2000) Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor function is enhanced by inhaled drugs of abuse. Acute and chronic exposure to this substance have yielded a range of side effects observed in both humans and animals. If swallowed, toluene can greatly impair the function of the kidney and liver. Some indices of behavior uniformly deteriorate as concentration or duration of exposure increases, while other measures form an inverted U-shaped curve as concentration or duration increases. The animals exposed to toluene showed significantly decreased hippocampal neurogenesis, which persisted until the 8th and final day of measurement. 1987. - 62.210.102.179. Seventeen subjects were assessed with different transcranial magnetic stimulation measurements: motor thresholds, short-latency intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation, and short-interval afferent inhibition before and after clean air or toluene (single peak of 200 ppm) administration. 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.08.053, Daskalakis ZJ, Paradiso GO, Christensen BK et al (2004) Exploring the connectivity between the cerebellum and motor cortex in humans. Muscle Nerve Suppl 9:S26–S32. PLoS One 12:e0173672, Meyer-Baron M (2005) A meta-analytical approach to neurobehavioural effects of occupational toluene exposure. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological threshold of behavioural effects may be comparable with the TLV. Greater than 75 percent is eliminated within 12 hours after exposure. Correspondence to Mature cross-bred dogs were acutely exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and toluene. Pre-chronic and Chronic Studies .....15 4.1.2.3. Selected subset of occupational studies of neurological effects from toluene inhalation .....74 T a b l e 2 . Researchers do no… The lethal dose for man cannot be stated with certainty. �x�% PubMed  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01158, PubMed  Treatment with GABA agonists such as benzodiazepines provide some relief from toluene-induced tremor and ataxia. endstream endobj 41 0 obj <> endobj 42 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/F 4/Rect[410.602 462.257 427.602 477.257]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>><>/Border[0 0 0]/F 4/Rect[52.5357 448.717 70.5357 465.071]/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>>]/Contents[46 0 R 47 0 R 48 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 52 0 R 53 0 R 54 0 R]/CropBox[0 0 612 792]/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 38 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 43 0 obj <>stream PubMed Google Scholar. Aviat Space Environ Med 67:640–647, Riegel aC, French ED (1999) An electrophysiological analysis of rat ventral tegmental dopamine neuronal activity during acute toluene exposure. Because of its small size the mouse can be confined in a 20 l hermetically sealed chamber for several hours. Toluene vapor has a sharp or sweet odor, which is a sign of exposure. ���e�y/�>q����f8M,C.U�� Subscription will auto renew annually. These symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. h�b```"kV� ��ea��`Pb(8�f��px��SՒ�,�{�� Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:910–926. "what are the toluene carcinogenic effects on the health of a person?" https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858410386614, Stĕtkárová I, Urban P, Procházka B, Lukás E (1993) Somatosensory evoked potentials in workers exposed to toluene and styrene. Following acute ingestion of toluene, systemic effects as seen following inhalation may occur as well as oropharyngeal and gastric irritation with abdominal pain and vomiting. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2008.153288, Perrine SA, O’Leary-Moore SK, Galloway MP et al (2011) Binge toluene exposure alters glutamate, glutamine and GABA in the adolescent rat brain as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4598(2000)999:9%3C::AID-MUS6%3E3.0.CO;2-I, Cirillo J, Lavender AP, Ridding MC, Semmler JG (2009) Motor cortex plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation is enhanced in physically active individuals. Toluene is typically used in a mixture with other solvents and chemicals such as paint pigments. On the behavioural level, toluene did not alter performance of the motor learning task. Some workers have developed reversible disorders of the optic nerves after chronic exposure in the workplace. Google Scholar, Hester SD, Johnstone AFM, Boyes WK et al (2011) Acute toluene exposure alters expression of genes in the central nervous system associated with synaptic structure and function. The acute behavioural effects of inhaling toluene after a single exposure are reversible,1 but although revers ible, they may also be an early sign of central nervous system (CNS) impairment leading to irreversible losses in performance with repeated exposures.2 3 Acute decrements may be large enough to decrease the safety margin of industrial tasks or to lower productivity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2009.09.005, Lulic T, El-Sayes J, Fassett HJ, Nelson AJ (2017) Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability. However, dangerous metabolic abnormalities are associated to acute toluene intoxication. Workers repeatedly exposed at 200 to 500 ppm have reported loss of coordination, memory loss, and loss of appetite. Exp Transl Stroke Med 3(1):4, Article  The review separately assessed the evidence of acute effects of contemporary toluene exposure versus evidence of persistent effects of past exposures. Each block consisted of seven interleaved 5-minutes resting and cycling blocks. More importantly, the data also demonstrate that the acute effects of 24-h exposure to toluene cannot be accurately predicted from the effects of a 1-h exposure by use of either dose metric. Google Scholar, Bale AS, Tu Y, Carpenter-Hyland EP et al (2005) Alterations in glutamatergic and gabaergic ion channel activity in hippocampal neurons following exposure to the abused inhalant toluene. PubMed  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210050341, Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Meglio M et al (2000a) Direct demonstration of the effect of lorazepam on the excitability of the human motor cortex. Ask doctors free . A 46-year-old member asked: what are the toluene carcinogenic effects on the health of a person? In the present study, toluene (300 mg kg −1 , i.p.) J Neural Transm 104:1207–1214. attention, dose metric, signal detection behavior, toxicokinetics, volatile organic compounds. Mentioning: 6 - Acute effects of a single i.p. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01294721, Lim SK, Shin HS, Yoon KS et al (2014) Risk assessment of volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in consumer products. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.2221, Article  J Physiol 590:4641–4662. Ce programme a inclus des expériences caractérisant les effets comportementaux et neurophysiologiques de l'inhalation des vapeurs, le développement de modèles numériq… *7l�Fy��A~���Iv�)�AN��f:ژ9�ߝ�|�Lah3.��~f�3��/_;uӱ���j�=��gO������5����c�㸼����}r��d�v���~@�uf���y^�_�I��&W�YG�T �����p.�p���|�2���i���@f�DFC=rk0� -��\m�!�L1���J;&٠��^�8�[KJ!��JH_�b. Toluene was introduced through a port and volatilized by a hot-plate. 0.2.1.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE. EPA has concluded that that there is inadequate … 123 Accesses. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1388-2457(02)00412-1, Nitsche MA, Cohen LG, Wassermann EM et al (2008) Transcranial direct current stimulation: state of the art 2008. Google Scholar, Bushnell PJ, Kavlock RJ, Crofton KM et al (2010) Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. T�� 9z��)'��UC�|��eq�vFe���W�,9�STrB����Ch��9j�l|�C�M���i��8��Ylq��|�]�$4��8��~.k`��A Acta Medica Croat 51:215–219, Yamaguchi T, Fujiwara T, Liu W, Liu M (2012) Effects of pedaling exercise on the intracortical inhibition of cortical leg area. This study encourages further research to obtain more knowledge about mechanisms of action and effects of toluene on both naïve and chronically exposed populations. CAS  In this study, the effects of toluene on locomotor activity, motor coordination, and passive avoidance learning, along with the possible mechanism underlying these toluene-induced behavioral manifestations, were investigated. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1997.sp021905, Nissen MJ, Bullemer P (1987) Attentional requirements of learning: evidence from performance measures. Concentrations corresponded to the German TLV (TRGS 403). Clin Neurophysiol 114:600–604. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0773.1999.tb01061.x, Rioult-Pedotti MS, Friedman D, Donoghue JP (2000) Learning-induced LTP in neocortex. Clin Neurophysiol 118:2207–2214. J Neurophysiol 104:2603–2614. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(87)90002-8, Nitsche MA, Paulus W (2000) Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. Acute Neurobehavioral Effects Of Toluene And Ethanol In Humans. edge of their acute effects on human central nervous system. The effects of toluene on children have not been studied very much, but toluene is likely to produce the same types of effects on the brain and nervous system in children as it does in adults. Incoordination, disequilibrium, confusion, and cognitive and memory deficits accompany these symptoms. Another complication in the literature on the acute effects of toluene is that the course of effects or the effective dose may differ depending on the behavioral test used. Exposure to higher concentrations leads to clouding or loss of consciousness. These behavioral flexibility deficits observed suggests dysfunctional medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. A smaller mesh … https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-003-0452-7, Sidhu SK, Bentley DJ, Carroll TJ (2008) Locomotor exercise induces long-lasting impairments in the capacity of the human motor cortex to voluntarily activate knee extensor muscles. In people and animals exposed to toluene, the first effect of toluene would be the depression of the central nervous system. endstream endobj startxref Google Scholar, van Tilborg, Hulstijn W (2010) Implicit motor learning in patients with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease: differences in learning abilities? Methods: acute effects of toluene. Answered by Dr. Ed Kaplan: Leukemia: Risk is leukemia and other bone marrow diseases. Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure: Can cause dry, red, cracked skin (dermatitis) following skin contact. Exp Brain Res 218:401–406, Yücel M, Takagi M, Walterfang M, Lubman DI (2008) Toluene misuse and long-term harms: a systematic review of the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature. Un programme mené au Laboratoire de recherche sur la santé et les effets environnementaux de l'epa, l'Agence américaine pour la protection de l'environnement, a étudié les risques associés à une exposition occasionnelle aux vapeurs de solvants. These studies indicate that toluene produces a number of subjective sensations such as headache, dizziness, feeling of intoxication, irritation and sleepiness and decreases in acute neurobehavioural performance at concentrations = 75 ppm (EU RAR, 2003). Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. The evidence suggests that inhaling toluene at 100 ppmover seven hours can cause slight impair-ments in vigilance, manual dexterity, and, perhaps, in visual memory.Theobjective ofthe present study was to determine whether these acute effects would Google Scholar, Tokimura H, Di Lazzaro V, Tokimura Y et al (2000a) Short latency inhibition of human hand motor cortex by somatosensory input from the hand. Both heart and breathing rates increased during cycling. Acute affects of 1,1,1‐trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and toluene on the hematologic parameters in dogs Hobara, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Higashihara, E.; Kawamoto, T.; Sakai, T. Effects of toluene on the wheel‐turning activity and peripheral blood findings in mice ‐ an approach to the maximum allowable concentration of toluene J Physiol 587:5831–5842, Cruz SL, Mirshahi T, Thomas B et al (1998) Effects of the abused solvent toluene on recombinant N-methyl-d-aspartate and non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Part of Springer Nature. PLoS One 8:e61793, Goodall S, González-Alonso J, Ali L, Ross EZ, Romer LM (2012) Supraspinal fatigue after normoxic and hypoxic exercise in humans. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0704874, Article  61 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<82E70B1567FC274B871C8704B30252CA><82E70B1567FC274B871C8704B30252CA>]/Index[40 40]/Info 39 0 R/Length 94/Prev 120988/Root 41 0 R/Size 80/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2011.07.008, Hey K, Juran S, Schaper M, Kleinbeck S, Kiesswetter E, Blaszkewicz M et al (2009) Neuro-behavioral effects during exposures to propionic acid—an indicator of chemo-sensory distraction? Front Psychol. A total of 20 male rabbits were used as control and experimental groups. During forced-choice trials, GCaMP6f transients shifted from pre-risky to pre-safe choice, an effect mitigated by acute toluene exposure. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705481, Dai W, Pi YL, Ni Z et al (2016) Maintenance of balance between motor cortical excitation and inhibition after long-term training.